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Please find below a list of all the references ever published about or related to Bossou and video/TV programs produced about Bossou.


  The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba
Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Humle, Tatyana; Sugiyama, Yukimaru (Eds.) 2011 from Springer

The chimpanzees of Bossou in Guinea, West Africa, form a unique community which displays an exceptional array of tool use behaviors and behavioral adaptations to coexistence with humans. This community of Pan troglodytes verus has contributed more than three decades of data to the field of cultural primatology, especially chimpanzees’ flexible use of stones to crack open nuts and of perishable tools during foraging activities. The book highlights the special contribution of the long-term research at Bossou and more recent studies in surrounding areas, particularly in the Nimba Mountains and the forest of Diécké, to our understanding of wild chimpanzees’ tool use, cognitive development, lithic technology and culture. This compilation of research principally strives to uncover the complexity of the mind and behavioral flexibility of our closest living relatives. This work also reveals the necessity for ongoing efforts to conserve chimpanzees in the region. Chimpanzees have shed more light on our evolutionary origins than any other extant species in the world, yet their numbers in the wild are rapidly declining. In that sense, the Bossou chimpanzees and their neighbors clearly embody an invaluable cultural heritage for humanity as a whole.

Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees
Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki (Eds.) 2006 from Springer

Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior
Matsuzawa, Tetsuro (Ed.) 2001 from Springer


Scientific papers with second hand analysis about Bossou written in European language.

Barnett AA, Prangley ML 1997 : Mammalogy in the Republic of Guinea: An overview of research from 1946 to 1996, a preliminary check-list ands a summary of research recommendations for the future. Mammal Rev. 27(3) : 115-164.

Derrick R 1994 : Culture in a nutshell: Chimp gives lessons in learning. BBC Wildlife Magagine 12(2) : 10.

Huffman, M.A. et al. 1998 : African great ape self-medication: A new paradigm for treating parasite disease with natural medicines?. In Ebizuka Y (ed) : Towards Natural Medicine Research in the 21st Century, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 113-123.

Matsuzawa T 1997b : Phylogeny of intelligence: A view from cognitive behavior of chimpanzees. IIAS Reports, No. 1997-004, pp.17-26.

Matsuzawa T 1998 : Chimpanzee behavior: A comparative cognitive perspective. In Greenberg G, Haraway M (eds) : Comparative Psychology: A Handbook. Garland Publishing, pp. 360-375.

Matsuzawa T 2001 : Primate Foundations of Human Intelligence : A View of Tool Use in Nonhuman primates and Fossil Hominids. In : Matuzawa T (ed) : Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior. Springer, Tokyo, pp. 3-25.

Matsuzawa T 2005: Book review of The Cultured Chimpanzee: Reflections on cultural primatology. Nature, 434, 21-22

Muroyama Y, Sugiyama Y 1994 : Grooming relationships in two species of chimpanzees. In Wrangham RW, McGrew WC, de Waal FBM, Heltone PG (eds) : Chimpanzee Cultures, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp. 169-180.

Remy M 1999 La Guinee Aujourd’hui. Les Editions du Jaguar, Paris.

Sakho D 1997 : Elaboration d’un plan d’amenagement pastoral dans la Reserve de Biosphere des Monts Nimba. Online. http://www.unesco.org/mab/capacity/mys/95/sakho/sakho. Accessed 21 July 1999.

Sakura O 1995 : What is this thing called “group of animals”? A proposal of the pluralistic terminology implicated from non-human primate ecology. The Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science 8 : 237-252.

Sugiyama Y 1993 : Local variation of tools and tool use among wild chimpanzee populations. In Berthelet A, Chavaillon J (eds) : The Use of Tools by Human and Non-human Primates, Clarendon Press, Oxford. pp.175-187.

Sugiyama Y 1997 : Social tradition and the use of tool-composites by wild chimpanzees. Evol. Anthropol. 6 : 23-27.

Sugiyama Y 1998 : Local Variation of Tool-using Repertoire in Wild Chimpanzees. In Nishida T (ed) : Comparative Study of the Behavior of the Genus Pan by Compiling Video Ethogram, Nissindo Printer, Kyoto, pp. 82-91.

Sugiyama Y, Soumah AG 1988 : Preliminary survey of the distribution and population of chimpanzees in the Republic of Guinea. Primates 29 : 569-574.

Vogel G 1999 : Chimps in the wild show stirrings of culture. Science 284 : 2070-2073.

Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Tutin CEG, Wrangham RW, Boesch C 1999 : Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature 399 : 682-685.

Yamakoshi G 2001 : Ecology of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees : Toward Reconstruction of Early Hominid Evolution. In : Matsuzawa T (ed) Primate Origins of Human Cognition and Behavior. Springer, Tokyo, pp. 537-556.

Yamakoshi G 2004 : Evolution of complex feeding techniques in primates: Is this the origin of great-ape intelligence? In (A. E. Russon & D. R. Begun eds.) The Evolution of Thought: Evolutionary Origins of Great Ape Intelligence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 140-171.


Visual works, TV programs about Bossou in European language

Koltlandt A, van Orshoven J, Pfeijffers R, van Zon JCJ 1981 : Chimpanzees in the wild, Guinea 1966-1967: Sixth Netherlands chimpanzee expedition. (16mm film, sound) University of Amsterdam.

Matsuzawa T 1998 : A hard nut to crack: Tool use of wild chimpanzees at Bossou. ANC/NHK (43min.).

Matsuzawa T 1998 : Une noix difficile a concasser: L’usage d’outils chez chimpanzes sauvages de Bossou. ANC/NHK (43min.)

Matsuzawa T 2001 : WILDLIFE ON ONE. Chimpanzees : Toolmakers of Bossou. BBC, (29min.).

Matsuzawa T 2003 : Jokro : the Death of a Chimpanzee. KUPRI (19min)

Gilles Nivet 2006 : Le Pacte de Bossou. Gaia Video concept (52 min.).